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The Working Poor: Invisible in America by David Shipler Book Report

The working poor: Invisible in America By David Shipler Introduction America is a developed country but there still exists a group of people called the working poor. Although these people are working, they still languish in poverty. They live between a state of “poverty” and “well being”. Their efforts to move from “poverty bracket” to “well being bracket” are diminished due to negligence by the government. This book focuses on American working poor and what the government is doing to help the situation.

Summary The author writes about the group of individuals struggling to survive in the US. His focus is on the people who are working but struggling to live and meet their daily needs. He terms them as people who have been left behind. Existence of such groups of people at a time when the US is celebrating its prosperity is considered a disgrace. The author carries out several interviews with people who are struggling to meet their basic needs like medical care.

He finds out that most of these people are working and some are even engaged in full time jobs. He is not pleased with the kind of life these people are leading despite their hard work. He believes that the government is not doing much to address the issue of the working poor. He adds that the government is not implementing laws that can help the working poor improve their living standards.

Although there are laws set up to protect the working poor, the process of implementing them is very poor and this leads to their failure. The kind of leadership in place can not come up with strategies to ensure that the laws are enforced. Therefore, it is very difficult to change the situation.

This book also reveals many other facts about the life of the working poor. All these facts give an indication of failure of leadership at state as well as national level. This means that the economic prosperity can not be sustained. The author suggests various ways by which the working poor can be helped. He insists that the government and the private sector should work hand in hand with other agents to come up with collective strategies that will improve the living standards of the working poor.

In order to help the working poor, the author proposes wage reform strategy that will regulate employers on how they pay their workers. He also says that the wage reform should apply at the bottom as well as the top. It should be able to set the minimum as well as the maximum pay standards for the workers for equality purposes. The issue of excess wealth to some Americans should be considered. Some Americans are paid very high salaries leading to various imbalances and creating a huge gap between the poor and the rich.

The book ends by the author appealing for ideological debate. He says that unless the ideological debate is encouraged and incorporated in public policies, the situation of the working poor is likely to remain the same. He says that it is time to table the facts about the working poor so that proper steps can be taken to correct the situation. Silence means prolonging the problem but not solving the problem.[1]

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The central theme The main theme featured in this book is poverty. The author examines a group of Americans who are completely left behind despite their hard work. He refers to them as the working poor. Although these groups of people are working, their living standards are still low. Despite their effort and willingness to work hard, it is almost impossible for them to attain their American dream.

In case of a financial obstacle, the working poor may not be able survive and this may lead to an irreversible financial downfall. They live up to their means with no funds left for emergency cases. In this book, the author holds various conversations with the working poor. He finds out that the working poor are held in dead end jobs where chances for advancement and improvement are very slim. There are no benefits and opportunities for further development.

These are the factors that make the working poor languish in poverty. The author also blames the government systems that are set up to help the working poor. He says that most of these systems are only provided but not implemented. Their effects are not visible at all. Some of the working poor are also resistant to help from the systems. Others are completely unaware that there are such systems in place to help them.[2]

The quantitative role played by the US The United States as a cultural entity is not very aware of the factors that contribute to poverty. This means that the US is not so sure of the solutions that might fully correct this situation. However, there are many ways in which US play a role concerning the invisible working poor. Politically, the government has come up with laws that enforce minimum wage.

The only problem is that these laws are not implemented according to the government specifications leading to their failure. In fact the working poor are being charged high bills when it comes to health care and other public services. This raises their expenditures with no increase in income leading to poverty.

Although there are many upcoming ways to help the working poor, the author insists that no single way can succeed in correcting this situation. He proposes that the government should work hand in hand with the private sector to ensure that the laws are well implemented. Among the strategies proposed include changing of the present wage structure, fair distribution of public resources and coming up with programs that are more vocational.

The perception of the US in the book I think the perception of the US in this book is negative. Although US is considered as a land of opportunities, there still exists a group of people who are working but still live in poverty. These people have been neglected and their welfare is not a priority anymore to America.

We will write a custom Report on The Working Poor: Invisible in America by David Shipler Book specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is because the laws that have been put in place to help these people are not enforced into actions. The government is not committed to evaluate its law system to make sure that the laws are being obeyed. This shows how the US is less concerned with the working poor. We are told that the working poor are handled like slaves despite the existence of laws that enforce humane working conditions and minimum wage.

As much as we expect the working poor people to be treated at low medical costs in hospitals, they are being charged much more money than they can afford. Any emergency treatments, transport and other medical costs are even worsening the situation of the working poor.[3]

Lessons that the book holds for US citizens There are very many lessons that this book holds for the US citizens. First, the US citizens need to be very careful when choosing leaders in future. They need to elect leaders who will implement the set laws and make sure that the laws are obeyed. This will reduce poverty among the working poor.

The US citizens need to learn that despite being a developed country, there are still groups of people who are languishing in poverty. With this in mind, they can be able to strategize on the factors contributing to this situation and come up with viable solutions that can help correct the situation.[4]

How to change the problems addressed in the book From a personal perspective, I would encourage formation of movements and unions that will protect and fight for the rights of the working poor. These unions and movements will be able to push for reforms and law implementations that will see the working poor improve.

From a perspective of US policy, the government needs to make sure that those laws concerning minimum wage and humane working conditions are enforced and implemented. This is through setting up of law structures and arms that will monitor the implementation process and ensure that everybody is obeying the laws.[5]

Conclusion Poverty is an urgent issue in the American society especially among the working poor. These issue need to be addressed by the government in collaboration with other agents for improvement of the living standards of the working poor.

Reference List Both, Deborah and Barbara. Zang. 2009. The working poor in America. Washington, DC: National academy press.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Working Poor: Invisible in America by David Shipler Book by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Shipler, David. 2004. The working poor: Invisible in America. New York: Knopf publishers.

Footnotes David Shipler, The working poor: Invisible in America (New York: Knopf publishers 2004), 21.

Ibid, 23.

Ibid, 23.

Ibid, 23.

Deborah Both and Barbara Zang,The working poor in America (Washington, DC: National academy press 2009), 54.

The Theory of Human Change and Growth Research Paper

Nursing Assignment Help Table of Contents Introduction

Biological Theory

Cognitive Theory

Do people really change?

What makes us change?


Works Cited

Introduction There are a number of factors that defines how human beings change as they grow old. Exposure to different environments is one of the major player to this change. Human beings like all living things begin their life as a single cell (when the male and the female gametes meet and the ovum gets fertilized) thus marking the beginning of life.

The interaction of the genes and the environment around as the cell grows from the embryo up to the adult stage makes us different and unique in everyway from others. For instance, the reaction to same environment is very diverse even in two identical twins.

Human growth can be defined as the increase in size and mass of the body, these two characteristics are measured by height and weight respectively. Other than growth, there is also development which is the progressive change in the body (either qualitative or quantitative) that helps one differentiate an undifferentiated or immature state to a highly specialized and mature human being (Bogin 15).

The theories of how human beings grow and change are several with each trying to explain how we all grow and react differently to diverse situations that we are exposed to, in life.

Biological Theory Charles Darwin theory of inheritance suggests that we behave according to the genes we inherit from our progenies (whether it is from the father or from the mother). As long as we carry out our parents genes within our system we will always behave in a way that relates to them.

Another theory which contradicts the inheritance theory is the selfish gene which states that genes not only affect our physical characteristics but also our behaviors thus we don’t need to have inherited them rather we can develop unique behaviors as we grow. For example, behaviors that are caring and nurturing such as the care shown to young children may be more about ensuring the survival of the next generation than altruism and loving behavior as most of us believe.

How we are brought up determines who we become. For example, a child treated with love and kindness is more likely to care about his her fellow collegues and seek fairness and equity in situations which call for the same.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cognitive Theory This theory tries to understand how human beings think by understanding the thought process. The assumption that human beings are logical means that human beings make choices that have sense to them and thus will change as they grow as their environments change to meet the required demands (Fritscher 1).

The believe that development of human thought processes is an interactive one (between the individual and their environment) and that it takes place through the absorption of key experiences and differs from other behavioral perspectives which maintain that the environment shapes who we are holds.

For instance, when a child interacts with the environment he begins to understand the world only through active engagement with it, their understanding becomes more complex as they pass through the cognitive process and understand how the environment really is.

Self concept is another factor that makes us change as we grow. Many people define self concept as that perception one has for his or her qualities and attributes.

The argument is that infants have got no sense of self on birth but as they grow this changes; at two years most kids will have recognized themselves, at pre-school age the child self concept is concrete and physical and by 8 years of age the kid can describe inner qualities and by adolescent self concepts become more abstract. Cultural and family factors influence the development of these attributes and traits.

There are five genetically based needs that as we try to fulfill makes us change. They include survival, love and belonging, power or achievement, freedom, and fun. People will do everything to make sure that they have most of these for example who hates to be loved? We always act to control the world around us and the real world is important to the extent it helps us satisfy our needs although we may not always satisfy our needs directly (Anon 6-8).

Do people really change? As the editor of pick the brain explains (1) some individuals holds the view that people do not change, others say people only change if there is a reason to.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Theory of Human Change and Growth specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He explains that although one may have some inner traits only known to oneself, we are not imprisoned by them thus we will always change. Believing that we can’t change makes us accept our weaknesses and stay imprisoned by them but the moment one realises that he can change then it becomes easier to overcome our weaknesses and move on with life (Pick brain editor 1).

Other people argue that individuals do not change but grow and if they grow it is sometimes not always. Their characters, personality and other qualities that equate to how human beings operate change only substantially.

They only improve and become better version of themselves. Though to some degree this may not appear as change, the fact that they are improving is an indication that they are changing from the past self to a better person or a worse person as they grow older.

As we grow older not only do we change but also our needs change. We make new friends while losing in touch with the old ones and we might even forget them. For example how many of us remember their childhood friends, those friends we could not sleep before seeing, those friends whom we thought meant much to us in this world more than our parents even did at that time, do we still have them? where they are and whatever they are doing is no longer our concern.

We would want to be concerned but we can not. We have made new friends, forged ahead as many say and though not entirely forgotten them.

But can we blame ourselves anyway? It is good to note that when we were young children we used to live, play, and act as we wanted. At that time we had no responsibilities or worries but as we grew older pressures and less freedom seemed to follow us everywhere, 24 hours began becoming inadequate for a day chores.

Old age has brought with it many responsibilities and reality is checking; in we have got limited time to do everything that we would wish. It is always sweeter than reality knowing that we will never go back to childhood (Anon 1). For example I remember my childhood girlfriend. I used to think that how I felt about her was so natural that one day we would end up together like our parents, mum and dad.

But soon after primary school she went to a different and far place from where we used to stay and so our friendship grew weaker and weaker; I don’t know what happened to her afterwards. I still feel sad about her sometimes that I cant tell what kind of a person she became or what she is doing now but all I know is that if we meet in the streets may be we could remember each other and the old things we used to do or may be we couldn’t.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Theory of Human Change and Growth by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More I wonder what would happen; a lot has happened between us and a lot of things have changed as we get older we view things differently and even argue differently. Even if I try to look for her it may not be productive as we may not even cope. The only thing that remains is for us to accept that things have changed and life has to move on (Nelson 1).

What makes us change? The reason why we change as we grow is that change gives us a chance to reach new heights, it makes us unique. Diverse exposures makes us change differently, be it in our thinking, beliefs or even the way we view things. Since we won’t always be in the same place we will at all times change no matter how much fear we hold.

Conclusion As we grow old things do change;memories fade away slowly as we gro old. We forget what our childhood dreams and the promises were, we get lost in making new unworthy priorities and synthetic emotions. We no longer do things because they benefit others but we do things because we are supposed to do them.

Because one said so or because everyone is doing so we forget who we are, what we want, and we become too scared even to follow our very own dreams.

The changes that happen in our lives are inevitable and so we don’t have to regret about the past which we can’t have hold of rather we should enjoy and do everything today that makes our souls happy for today is tomorrow’s past and once it’s gone it becomes part of our history.

Works Cited Anonymous. Human Growth and Development. Not Dated. Web.

Anonymous. Will We Change Our Friends When We Grow Up. 2009. Web.

Bogin, Barry. Patterns of Human Growth. Cambridge university. 1999. Web.

Editor, pick the brain. People Do Change. 2007. Web.

Fritscher, Lisa. Cognitive Theory. 2009. Web.

Nelson, Sara. When You and Your Best Friend Grow Apart. 2006. Web.

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