Maternal death is defined by the World Health Organization as “the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration or site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management, but not from accidental causes”(Hunt and Mesquita).
Emergency Obstetric Care, which includes treating symptoms of “shock,” giving antibiotics and sedatives through injections, executing manual extraction of the placenta and basic curettage is vital to the reduction of maternal deaths accompanied by other lifesaving skills.
There are two major causes of maternal deaths according to DFID: complications arising directly from pregnancy, delivery or postpartum duration and is also known as direct obstetric death, or due to an existing medical condition aggravated by pregnancy or delivery such as rheumatic heart disease, hepatitis, HIV-AIDS, anemia or malaria.
These are known as indirect obstetric deaths. According to the above report by Center for Health Research at the University of Indonesia, direct obstetric deaths account for 75% of maternal deaths and include five major medical causes which are hemorrhage, complications of unsafe labor, eclampsia, obstructed labor and infection.
All these can be treated before they become emergencies. Even as emergencies, Emergency Obstetric Care can save all these conditions since they require no complex technology and are inexpensive. These include blood transfusions, antibiotics and other drugs, safe abortion procedures and caesarian sections.
Prediction and prevention of obstetric complications is a good way of preventing maternal deaths. Pregnant women should regularly visit a doctor or a clinic throughout their pregnancy where an obstetric complication can be identified early and treated or managed before it becomes a problem.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example minor bleeding can be detected and dealt with during these visits or cases of hypertension and could also be indicators that major bleeding both during and after birth could still occur and therefore emergency obstetric care is needed such as emergency surgery.
However, some conditions appear without warning as research by center for Health Research at the University of Indonesia has indicated. Eclampsia cases can occur without prior indication of happening both during and after delivery but enough time is available to administer emergency obstetric care. The question is whether the facilities and skills to do so are available (Meiwita, Hull and utomo).
In developing nations, the distribution and availability of health facilities and the necessary skills are major challenges especially in rural areas according to World Health Organization (Hunt and Mesquita). This means that pregnant women can not be able to make more frequent visits to a doctor or a clinic as they travel long distances to access them and some of the facilities required are not available.
In some cases as researchers found out in Indonesia that women can not access medical professionals or adequate care during emergencies because they cannot afford the costs (Meiwita, Hull and utomo).
These women are left in the hands of community health workers, midwives and other poorly trained practitioners. Emergency obstetric care is not a complex matter, midwifes, community health workers and paramedics likely to attend in births in such areas can be trained on these skills and lives would be saved (DFID).
Witnesses to birth experiences such as village officials, community health workers, traditional birth attendants, neighbors and health care personnel and women themselves have their own interpretation of emergencies according to (DFID). They view these emergencies differently which may have a bearing on how they are handled. They may for example dismiss a case of postpartum hemorrhaging as normal which delays its management and subsequently lead to death.
They can also handle a delivery unhygiencally leading to infection. Furthermore, a woman or her family or those attending her may fail to recognize the symptoms of eclampsia until it gets out of control. This is why community based initiatives such as training make Emergency obstetric care very necessary in reducing maternal death.
We will write a custom Essay on The Major Medical Causes of Maternal Deaths and Ways to Reduce It specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited DFID. Reducing Maternal Deaths: Evidence and Action: Astrategy for DFID. London: Department for International Development, 2004.
Hunt, Paul and Judith Mesquita. Reducing Maternal mortality: the contribution of the highest attainable standard of health. United Kingdom: university of essex, 2007.
Meiwita, iskandar, et al. Unraveling the mysteries of maternal death in West Java : reexamining the witnesses. Jarkata: Centre for health Research,Research Health, University of Indonesia, 1996.
“Khubilai Khan: His Life and Times” by Morris Rossabi: Review Report
Nursing Assignment Help “Khubilai Khan: His Life and Times” was written by Morris Rossabi focusing on the Song and Yuan dynasties that existed in the Eurasian continent in the early centuries during which the Mongols were the rulers. The author, Morris Rossabi, is a professor at Columbia with a specialty in China and Central Asia history, an author of several articles and has had many expeditions in Central Asia and Mongolia.
In this book, Rossabi focuses on a man known as Khubilai Khan who “lived during the height of Mongol power” (Rossabi 1) and was perceived by many writers as a mythical and legendary figure who was able to influence greatly the history of China, parts of Asia, and the Europe as well.
Khubilai Khan was born on 23rd September 1215 (Rossabi 13), and his career ignited the rise and fall of the Mongol Empire in early China. It was during his reign that China witnessed the building of its capital city, Shanghai, and the development of a legal code among other developments. He was brought up by his mother, Ogodei.
His wish to become a leader and develop his leadership skills started when he was a ruler of a group of Chinese farmers and rose up the leadership ladder to a Mongol. In all his leadership positions, he adopted a “laizzes-faire” kind of leadership and did not discriminate any class of people (Rossabi 14).
Though he was a non-Chinese, he was dependent mostly on the Chinese people who acted as his personal advisors. However, when he was young, it was not easy to manipulate him and his leadership and, due to these facts, we are able to learn that for the Chinese, it did not actually matter where the ruler came from to demonstrate his leadership position and change to Chinese.
Numerous discussions and wrangles because of leadership took place between Khan and his step brothers. Khan had an advantage considering his expansion of the rule to Northern China and also had his own advisors from other parts. He was termed as the most “typical Confucian ruler” (Rossabi xii), even if he did not know the Confucian language, still, the people who were close to him were of Chinese origin.
Khubilai was portrayed as a ruler whom nobody knew, neither his leadership style nor ideas despite the thirty four years he held the rule. He realized that “a good emperor ought, in Chinese eyes, to be a patron of the country’s culture” (Rossabi 163), so, he tried to do everything to meet the necessary standards.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author reveals that despite his empire being marked with frequent wars, he always put up stimulus programs that were meant to boost the social, economic and political structures of the empire. His main concern was on those of the lower class of whom many were the peasants (Rossabi 120); therefore, he developed agriculture and policies that protected their lands from being grabbed and also promoted farm taxes abolishment.
In addition, the artisans or craftsmen enjoyed his protection as they were provided with jewellery at the courts, a fact that led to the growth of merchants.
There were many different spheres and activities which were properly developed under the Khan’s ruling. For example, medicine was a highly recognized activity that promoted the development of Imperial Academy of Medicine and was appreciated by the medical representatives from India. It was usually favored by the court, and only pragmatic rulers were able to define its benefits in regard to the development of political relations (Rossabi 125).
However, it was not the only activity that made Khan recognizable over the whole world. To gain support from the vast majority of people, Khan pardoned his political enemies and established a law that required one to pay a fine in case it was found that committing an offence was more appropriate than being imprisoned in jail. He faced a lot of resistance from his enemies and personal frustrations until his death at the age of eighty while still in power.
Through the book, the reader gains knowledge on the importance of recognizing all classes of people who help Khubilai Khan retain power and stay strong during a certain period of time. As it was mentioned before, the peasants appreciated his activities the most, and this group of people was the major one.
Another clear point the author opens to the reader is that leadership wrangles always starts with family members who prefer to make and develop coalitions with enemies in order to fight against the leader and dethrone his within a short time. Control of authority was regarded to be a significant part of the leader’s life, and to improve the relations with different people, Khubilai made numerous attempts to solve different problems in different ways as soon as they appeared (Rossabi 185).
In general, the book is considered to be an interesting source of information about Khubilai Khan during the times he was empowered, specially the time when he deployed Chinese people to be his personal advisors yet he did not know any Chinese language, and his weird way of leadership was not clear to every member of society.
We will write a custom Report on “Khubilai Khan: His Life and Times” by Morris Rossabi: Review specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He was a ruler who operated with his conscience: even those people who were close to him could not guess what he was planning to execute, this is why nobody could manipulate him in any way. Maybe, because of such attitude to the people around and to his duties, this person was defined as the Great Khan (Rossabi 53).
Though the book does not provide the reader with a clear view of the backgrounds under which Khan lived; a number of interesting facts and passive information about his family, his way to power, and his readiness to resist everyone around help to grasp the main idea of this great ruler’s life.
In spite of the fact that not much attention is paid to the political situation in the country, the reader is able to comprehend what made Khan choose particular steps. So, if the reader is able to evaluate the situation through the eyes of Khan and his relatives, it is possible to define the essence of life that was spread over Eurasia before it disintegrated.
Works Cited Rossabi, Morris. Khubilai Khan: His Life and Times. New York: University of California Press, 1990. Print.
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