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The Lost Boys of Sudan: Ambiguous Loss, Search for Family, and Reestablishing Report (Assessment)

Table of Contents Separation

Relationships in the refugee camps

Searching for families

Reestablishing relationships


Work Cited

Displacement of people and separation of families have been common occurrences across the globe with common realization during wars. Initial example for such displacements and separations had been realized during the world wars. Sudan, at the brink of its war in the last decades of the twentieth century also experienced such family displacement and separation as rebel groups from the Southern region fought against government forces.

The consequences were significant on civilians who were either killed or displaced. This paper seeks to give a reaction to a research paper titled The Lost boys of Sudan. The paper will look into the writers’ opinions about the circumstances that have faced the youth and offer a critique.

Separation The article represents three major types of separations as was realized by the children. Major separations were caused by attacks on civilians by both government and rebel forces. Separation of children from their parents was also caused by their parents giving them up and sending them to deeper regions of Southern Sudan which were considered to be safer. Such displacements however led to the movements of civilians to refugee camps in neighboring countries such as Ethiopia and Kenya.

The circumstances that led to the separation of the children from their family having been an act of war between the government of Sudan and rebel forces presented humanitarian challenges that had to force people to move from their homes owing to the fact that the war was military based with the civilians being left with no party to protect them.

The first cause of displacement was caused by attacks by government forces on people and this attracts more criticisms than established by the writers. One of the functions of a government is the protection of its people and this obligation is internationally recognized regardless of any difference of opinion that the people may have contrary to the opinion held by the government or its agencies.

The government of Sudan was thus in violation of international laws of justice by having ordered or even tolerated moves by its forces to attack its citizens. Though the next category of attacks was by rebels in response to moves by government forces, it also illustrated a weakness on the side of the government of Sudan.

Contrary to having its forces attack civilians, the government was supposed to contain any form of rebel uprising that could cause harm to its citizens. This could have been initially achieved through establishing democratic processes to meet the grievances that the rebels had against the government and forging a united country (Luster, Desiree, Bates, Johnson and Meenal 4).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Separations on the grounds of parents sending their children off on the other hand draw reactions from two points of view. It can be argued that parents were justified to ensuring the safety of their children at all costs and that included moving the children to safer places if the residence became unsafe.

Though parents can move with their children to identified safer places to avoid separation of families, factors can hinder such family movements.

Economic factors such as fears of instability which may lead to suffering from hunger can however hinder movements in totality forcing parents to send only their children away as they struggle to maintain their lives in the risky regions. Forces in the conflicts, such as the rebel militia, could also have restricted movements of adults, who could be recruited as personnel in the forces.

It would however be better if parents moved with their children to establish a new life in a family environment, even if it means to live in a refugee camp. This could cause less psychological harm to children who suffered due to uncertainty of the existence of their parents and other relatives (Luster et al. 4).

Relationships in the refugee camps The lost boys are reported to have received warm welcome in the process of moving from their homes and even in the camps where they settled in the neighboring countries. Reports of the children joining hospitable families along their journey to refugee camps and good treatments by members of their clans who they found in the camps were recorded.

This warmth from the children’s clansmen offered a consolation to them (children). The representation of supportive adults in the process of escaping violence and in the camps as illustrated by the writers however draws some inconsistencies.

First and foremost, the ability of adults to flee their homes into camps would negatively portray parents who did not move away with their children to offer them protection and support. It can be argued that such parents were irresponsible to an extent of endangering the lives of their children by failing to even accompany them to the camps.

We will write a custom Assessment on The Lost Boys of Sudan: Ambiguous Loss, Search for Family, and Reestablishing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The representation of a supportive elderly category of adults from the clans of the children in the refugee camps was also not well based. Just like one of the children was taken into a family on his way to a camp, the elderly population that already lived in the camps should have extended their support to the children to offer them parental care.

Since they were from the same clans, the adults should have organized themselves to try and absorb the destitute children into their families. This could have helped the children to acquire better psychological stability due to existence of some parental care even in the absence of their real parents. The children were on the contrary left without such care and they had to organize themselves into forming families of children.

The writers were thus not discrete enough in their presentation of the level of care that the children got in the camps. I feel that the adults should have looked beyond the barriers at the camps to extend the African culture of communal ownership of children to help the displaced children in the camps to cope with their situations (Luster et al. 5).

Searching for families The lost children are reported to have employed both informal and formal techniques to search for their family members. Use of letters and the later developed technologies such as the internet were some of the tools that were employed to assist in the search.

Informal communication as illustrated by the writers in which new arrivals into the camps gave information to the boys about their parents raises questions about the level of care that the parents had for their children who they had sent away. It was not for example explained why the parents of the children never made it to the camps when there were chances and other people were moving into these camps.

It was also explained that the informal information that was received was never directly sent by the relatives but general information that the new arrivals in the refugee camps had. This discredits the authenticity of the research on the basis of inconsistency.

The fact that there was a link through Red Cross between the camps and the volatile regions in Sudan and the presentation that some of the children were sent away by parents on the basis of care and steps to protect the children from harm should have ensured a follow up through Red Cross to establish the conditions of the children.

There is on the contrary no communication from parents or relatives and only the children were initiating attempts for contacts. The search for families which is identified to have been more effective after some of the boys had moved to the United States is also not very convincing.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Lost Boys of Sudan: Ambiguous Loss, Search for Family, and Reestablishing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Though individuals in the United States could have realized a change in how they connected with each other in the new place and even back at home, connectivity among people in the refugee camps is not expected to have drastically improved just on the basis that some individuals moved to a different country (Luster et al. 7).

Reestablishing relationships An outline of the reestablishments of families on the basis of use of more easily available technology however indicated consistency as well as the varied reactions from either sides as the boys connected with their families (Luster et al. 7).

Conclusion Though the research outlines a wide scope that covers experiences of the children from refugee camps in Africa to their new life in America, it leaves some aspects unexplained over the relationships between the boys and their parents. This discredits the research on the basis of incorrect information from the sources.

Work Cited Luster, Tom., Desiree Qin., Bates, Laura., Johnson, Deborah and Meenal, Rana. The Lost Boys: Ambigious Loss, Search for Family, and Reestablishing Relationships with family members. Find Article, 2008. Web.

Congestive heart failure Essay

Nursing Assignment Help Congestive heart failure (CHF) is one of the common health challenges in aging persons. The health condition is one of the major causes of deaths and health complications for individuals that above sixty-five years. Congestive heart failure is not only a major cause of health complication and death in aging individuals but also contribute high number of re-admission among aging person. Moreover, treating congestive heart failure cost a fortune and is a major challenge to families with a CHF patient.

Theoretical framework Considering its significance to the health of aging persons, Health care provision for aging persons should therefore consider CHF management. Because of increased cases of CHF and its health and cost implications, various recent research studies have focused towards coming up with better chf management Congestive heart failure occurs when the heart is not able to meet the body’s demand for oxygen.

The heart of congestive heart failure patient is weak and is not able to supply sufficient blood in key body organs. The condition id further accelerated by secondary factors such a as high blood pressure and coronary artery disease which weaken the heart.

Similarly, faulty heart valves, a condition that occurs when the valves between heart chambers do not open properly forcing the heart to work harder to keep the blood flowing correctly also weakens the heart leading to heart failure. Other tertiary factors such as diabetes, severe anemia as well as kidney or liver filature could precipitate to heart failure.

The symptoms of the disease are easily recognizable such as shortness of breath coughing, swelling feet and ankles, swelling abdomen as well as weight gain. The treatment and recovery require keen supervision and medication that should be regularly maintained failure to which the condition accelerates depending on the seriousness of the disease or factor involved (Stewart et al 2002, pp361)..

Literature review Heart failure is common among the elderly and financially dependent population. These are often considered a burden to society and therefore given little attention and follow up.

The smaller financially stable population spends a considerable amount on medication and end up under cost and doctor supervision. In a community with limited or few resources there is little or no follow-up for the elderly after heir discharge from hospital.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because most of them often live lone and only receive one visit per week by a nurse. The nurse assesses their needs and ensures that they have taken their medicine. The regulatory and effectiveness of the medication depends on the patients discipline and punctuality in taking it (Ewald et al 2008, pp101).

The rates of discipline vary and depend on how the patient perceived the instruction on medications. This therefore poses a problem of taking medications on time. Since most of the patient lives alone, no one will remind them that a puff of cigarette or a sip of wine is a risk factor.

Medical conditions identified as risk factors to congestive heart failure include coronary artery disease, diabetes, hypertension, valvular heart disease, hyperthyroidism and earlier history of heart disease. Apart from medical conditions and age, lifestyle factors such as smoking, excessive consumption of alcohol and continuing use of anabolic steroids are noted as among risk factors of congestive heart failure.

Statement of the problem Congestive heart failure contributes to a high number of readmission cases in elderly patients and accounts to up to a quarter of all hospitalization expenditure.

Medical scientists have noted that congestive heart failure is not only a common indication of hospitalization in elderly patients but is also linked to early deaths and a high immortality rate among these patients (Rosamond Wet al. 2008, pp146).

This study will interrogate the rates of readmission as compared to admission in a local hospital with a bed capacity of 300 patients. The study will only focus on elderly 65 and above regardless of sex, race, ethnicity, socio eco, status in life etc. admitted only with CHF and reasons ranges from non-compliance of med, no diet modification, smoking, and alcohol.

No younger population or any less than 65 y/o. The research will narrow down to the readmission and admission rates for the period between January 2010 and March 2011 as well as the relevant data that will facilitate the development of a case management strategy (Krumholz et al 2000, pp 476).

We will write a custom Essay on Congestive heart failure specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Appropriateness of Approach The research will use quantitative descriptive design by doing retrospective chart review of cases diagnosed with congestive heart failure admitted in the local hospital. The data will be gathered between dates of January 2010 up to March 2011 period. The quantitative design is appropriate for this study because of the numbers needed for the research. This is a chart review of the chf cases from dates mentioned. This will study the data of chf readmission and the reason for consult.

Purpose of the research Role and bias of the researcher

The research will embrace both qualitative and quantitative methods in collecting data relevant to the research. The mixed approach will allow the researcher to interrogate the individual patients based on their experiences as well as their reasons and factors surrounding their conditions.

The research will be conducted for a whole year to capture an all round analysis of the situation in the local hospital (Hobbs et al 2002, pp214). Due to the lack of medical expertise, the researcher will employ the assistance of the doctors and nurses who have experience and have worked with the patients for a long time.

Sampling technique

The research will employ non-probability purposive sampling techniques in collecting data for the research. The patients admitted in the hospital come from different societal divides hence they cannot be easily identified not categorized. Further, the rate of admission and re- admission depends on a variety off factors that are beyond the control of this research and therefore crating a random environment.

Appropriateness of Sampling Technique

Non-probability purposive sampling allows the researcher to defeat the bias that may exist in the collection of data. The selection of a sample from a divergent population within a short time and also increases the accuracy of the research and ensures that the researcher maintains an objective perspective.

Non-probability purposive sampling allows the researcher to cover a large sample size within a short period of time ensuring that the research is completed on time. Non-probability purposive sampling also reduces the costs involved in the research since it narrows down the population size (Able, et al 2007).

Target Audience

Congestive heart failure affects people of all ages since it is caused by a variety of factors. Among children, it is not very prevalent since children have a high chance of recovery correction and treatment (Raphael et al. 2007, pp 476). The condition is however more prevalent among the elderly and adult population.

The research will therefore target the elderly population 65 y/o and above regardless of co morbidities as long as admitted or readmitted with chf. This represents a majority of the elderly dependent population with a few exceptions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Congestive heart failure by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hypothesis

The research will among other things satisfy the following hypothesis.

Should answer the question as to why readmission or admission is high among elderly in the local hospital given the period of study.

Provide the major reason for readmission

Avail a possible solution, which will be the involvement of the case management, using multi disciplinary team approach.


The research will engage both primary and secondary methods of data collection and analysis. Primary methods are more interactive and involve manual gathering of data from the subject phenomenon (Creswell 1994, p345). They involve collecting data for the first time. There are two commonly accepted primary approaches to research; the qualitative and the quantitative.

The study will employ the use of chart review as its only primary method. This method allows the researcher to interrogate various aspects of the admission and re-admission rates(Aronow, W et al 1999).

Instrument used

The research will present the data in the form of a table that will indicate the number of admission/readmissions per month on the given dates in the local hospital in question. The table will also provide information on the reason for these results and an account of the trend and future prospect of re admission for the same month of admission.

Data collection

Data collection will begin by getting all charts for admission from January 2010 to March 2011 specifically for patients admitted with chf ages 65 and above. The procedure to be followed will be : chart review, collect data, tabulate the months, then a tabular presentation of the reasons for admission/ re-admission. This provides a diverse opinion that is diverse and constructive. (Wilkinson 199, p21).

References Aronow, W et al (1999). “Comparison of incidence of congestive heart failure in older African-Americans, Hispanics, and Caucasians.” Am J of Cardiol 84 (5): 611–2

Auble TE, et al (2007). “Comparison of four clinical prediction rules for estimating risk in heart failure”. Annals of emergency medicine 50 (2): 127–35, 135.e1–2

Creswell, J. W. (1994). Research design: Qualitative

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