It is recorded that when Sir Raffles arrived in Singapore, it was only a small island with around 200 people and that Raffles immediately fell in love with this island. He purchased the island from the local chief, Abdul Rahman for the east India Company. The island later became an important seaport. Later on, the island of Singapore together with that of Penang and Malacca joined strait settlements which all fell under the British East India Company.
Singapore is a multiethnic society with immigrants from china, India, Malaya and Indonesia who arrived in Singapore during the establishment of the island as a sea port. Immigration into Singapore resulted from the thriving economy in Singapore as a result of the British rule.
There were a lot of opportunities and many immigrants worked either as clerks, technicians or teachers. 1823 saw Singapore become a penal station and convicts from India other parts of Asia were used in the building of roads. The eminence of Singapore grew especially following its colonization by the British and the development of the steamships around 1869.
The presence of tin and rubber made Singapore one of the leading sea ports in the region. In 1921, Singapore fell under the Japanese rule but was recaptured in 1945 by the British. In 1946, Singapore ceased to become part of the straits settlement and in 1959 attained her internal rule. She (Singapore) joined Malaya, Sabah and Sarawak forming Malaysia. 1965 saw Singapore attain full independence following her secession from Malaysia.
Mode Of Subsistence Singapore is a home to numerous groups of people most of whom are immigrants from china, India, Malay Archipelago and Japan. Majority of the Singapore population is made up of the Chinese immigrants who arrived here as early as 1800s. The main economic activity in Singapore is trade but there are also instances of manufacturing industries.
It is an active ship making country with tin smelting and rubber milling activities. It is formed on intensive capital, high wage and techno rather than the low wage and labor intensive industrial state it was in early 1980s. Singapore has a free market policy with open business characteristic (Venu, 2007 p.6).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Economic Organization Of Singapore Singapore, like the rest of the Asian economic giants has experienced tremendous economic growth since the late 1970s. Though Singapore is the world’s most populous country, she continues to enjoy an all high economic growth rates that are fueled by large labor and capital. Singapore forms the frontline in economic growth in Asia and has experienced an increase in the level of industrialization, political stability and accountability.
Economic Organization of the Singapore Chinese Chinese started moving into Singapore during the British settlement into the island. However, records shows that there were Chinese living in Singapore long before the arrival of the European. Many Chinese flocked into Singapore following the establishment of port in hope of making better lives.
Mass migrations started in 1840s after china was forced to open up its ports to European powers. Though many Chinese arrived on their own, most of them came through a credit system and provided cheap labor as coolies on arrival. These coolies were exploited and most of them were turned into slaves.
They were treated inhumanely and often arrived in overcrowded ships that were badly ventilated. The trade in coolies turned so ruthless that those who tried to escape faced dire consequences. This unfair treatment attracted the colonial authority that established a Chinese protectorate in 1877 (National Library Board, 2004 p.4). In 1840s, the population of Singapore had up to 50% Chinese.
In 1822, Sir Raffles ordered the division of the city state into different divisions each for a different ethnic group. The Malay community got the Kampong Glam area, Indians the Serangoon area while the Chinese community was allocated the Chinese kampong. The Chinese in Singapore were involved in trade and industry. Most of them worked as writers, cashiers, teachers, shoemaker brewers, shopkeeper and many other trades.
The Chinese Singaporeans were mainly agriculturalists and engaged in the cultivation of pepper and gambier. Large tracts of plantations were owned by the Teochews who cultivated these crops. Agriculture however began its downfall in 1840s when many farmers moved to Johor.
Chinese merchants were among the first to settle in Singapore following its establishment as a sea port by the Europeans. Many others served as middlemen while some actually established businesses here. The Chinese also provided cheap labor as manual workers. Other Chinese immigrants were employed in the gambier and pepper plantations. An important feature of the Chinese immigrants was their dialect specialization in which each dialect specialized in a given trade.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Singapore Geography and Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Modern Economy Currently, Singapore is the leading economic power in Asia. In Singapore, people have a fear of losing and always aspire to be the best. This aspect of ‘Kiasu’ makes the Singaporeans maintain high standards though it is thought to make them a graceless state. They have a very strong value placed on competition and relatively sturdy work ethics. Singapore prides in a well developed infrastructure far much ahead than in European countries and has a very hardworking population making it financially stable (Krause, Koh
Teleological and Deontological Theories of Ethics Definition Term Paper
Nursing Assignment Help Table of Contents Introduction
Judgment using the Double Effect Criterion
Introduction The term ethics means inquiry into the state and basis of morality. Morality refers to right decisions, principles, and rules of demeanor. Ethics has been termed as the discipline that deals with the human behavior in some cases, with an emphasis of verifying right and wrong. The distinction between a normal choice and an ethical one is that the latter requires one to exercise the duty of weighing virtues and arriving at a judgment in a case that is unique from the others that he or she has encountered prior to this.
Another distinction relates to the amount of accent placed by decision makers on their own principles and accepted ways of doing things in their own company. Accordingly, values and principles play a significant part when people or organizations have to make decisions that are ethical in nature. It is an agreeable fact that elevated ethical standards are determined by the ability of both persons and businesses to ascribe to sound moral values (Ferrell, Fraedrich, and Ferrell, 2009, p. 6).
Generally, beliefs about right and wrong are described by ethics and morality. Ethics are also used to give suitable directions regarding how one should undertake a certain action. On the other hand, morality is a devotion to personal values that are informal (Day, Paul and Williams, 2009, p. 27).
Since there is a very thin line between morality and ethics, one is often used in place of the other. A 29 year old wife has been paralyzed from a traumatic brain injury due to an automobile accident that she had several years ago. The husband is now taking care of both the wife and their sons. The wife is unable to communicate and decide well on various life issues.
The wife has terminated a recent pregnancy due to health decisions that were contributed by her own family. They regard the husband’s sexual relations with his handicapped wife as rape. The husband on the other hand justifies his sexual relations with his wife as necessary since it has existed prior to her having an accident.
This essay therefore attempts to look at whether the husband’s sexual relations with the wife are ethical. This is done by looking at the scenario in view of some ethical theories and in exploring some facts and issues that would be helpful in effectively answering the question.
Teleologic Theory This is a theory that puts a focus on the results of actions. Under this theory, the choice of action is vivid since the best action to be undertaken is that which maximizes good over bad. The difficulty of this theory is in judging intrinsic values to ascertain whose good ought to be the greatest. Moreover, an important question to be asked is whether immoral actions can be justified when they are being used to achieve good consequences (Day, Paul and Williams, 2009, p. 27).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the present case, the consequences under focus are several. First, the paralysis of the wife that was caused by the automobile accident has thus made her not be able to communicate, take care of herself, walk, or even eat. Secondly, the husband is compelled to provide her with homecare as a result of the paralysis.
Thirdly, she gets pregnant due to their sexual relations with her husband. Fourthly, the pregnancy is terminated by her physicians in view of her health concerns. Apparently, this is due to decisions from her family. Lastly, there is the resulting conflict between the husband and the wife’s family members due to the termination of the pregnancy.
Of great importance in this study is whether the husband’s sexual relations are ethical. In answering this question in the view of the teleological theory, it will be prudent to look at other questions as well.
These include whether it could have been better for the husband to have extra marital affairs because of the current state of health of his wife, and the question of whether it is unlawful to have sexual relations with one’s spouse if they are in a state of health similar to the one the wife is in. This is in addition to how rape is defined and circumstances under which physicians ought to terminate pregnancy.
It is clear that the husband is both loving and caring and that is why he has chosen to take care of his ailing wife. Although the wife is in a pathetic state of health, she is perhaps in need of sexual satisfaction from the husband. Since she is unable to talk, it cannot be assumed that she is not in need of sexual relations with her husband. In addition, as the husband asserts, they were in a loving sexual relation throughout their marriage.
This being his own wife, he could restrain himself from having intimacy with her. Since she is unable to talk, it could have been difficulty for the husband to agree with her on whether it was needful to have another child, hence getting pregnant. However, non-verbal communication could have been employed between the two to agree on this since she is said to be responsive to visual, auditory, and tactile stimulation.
In view of the shortcomings of the teleological theory with respect to the present study, is that based on the judgment of intrinsic values, the good of the ailing wife should have been the greatest. She is already in much trauma due to the accident that occurred.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Teleological and Deontological Theories of Ethics Definition specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, pregnancy and any action leading to it should have been avoided at all costs so that she is given sufficient health care to let her recover first. This is because extra discomfort is encountered when one is pregnant. Thus, although the husband was trying to avoid any bad outcome such as extra-marital affairs that could have led to further problems like sexually transmitted diseases and neglect of his family; his sexual actions could have led to more problems and was in this regard not ethical.
Deontological Theory The argument of this theory is that the ethical standards and their outcomes are mutually exclusive. A single situation may suit the application of one or several moral principles. One’ action may be based either on the one moral principle or on several moral principles available. The shortcoming of this theory is that either personal or cultural biases may affect the choice of the most primary moral principle (Day, Paul and Williams, 2009, p. 27).
In the current case, the husband’s actions are guided by a primary moral principle, which is as the husband; he reserves the right to have sexual relations with his wife. In addition, in him doing this, he will be fulfilling one of the key purposes of their marriage; procreation. It is also amoral for him to have extra marital affairs because the wife is sick.
Thus, according to this theory, his actions are justified since it is for the good of the family and that the consequences of his actions are separate from his sexual actions. However, his actions may not be justified based on how the wife’s family members and health professionals perceive it.
Accordingly, the wife’s family regards his sexual relations with her as rape. This is because rape can be defined as a coercing or compelling someone to have sexual relations against their willingness and in this may be the case of marital rape (Page, 2010, p. 381).
Since the wife is incapacitated and lacks the ability to communicate effectively and make appropriate judgment, the husband having sexual relations with her may be regarded as rape since she may not have consented to the same. Thus, viewed from this moral principle, the husband’s actions may be termed as amoral.
Judgment using the Double Effect Criterion This is a criterion that can be used to ethically justify some actions whose consequences are either good or bad (Day, Paul and Williams, 2009).
Thus, although the outcomes of the husband’s actions may not be good, his action may be morally justified. This is because, first, the action can be termed as being ethically impartial; having physical intimacy with his wife is morally acceptable. However, given that her present state of health does not allow her to make sound decisions with respect to having sex, doing so may amount to rape, which is amoral.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Teleological and Deontological Theories of Ethics Definition by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Secondly, the agent (husband) genuinely intends for good and not a bad outcome. The bad outcome is not intended but it can be foreseen. He intends to sexually satisfy his wife and remain faithful. However, this does not stop him from foreseeing the pregnancy that might complicate the wife’s state of health.
Thirdly, the evil outcome is not used as a means of achieving the good outcome. The husband is consciously aware that his action will have a good outcome and not the evil one. Finally, the balance of good over evil is proportionate. The intention behind the husband’s decision to have sexual relations with his ailing wife is favorable in comparison to the amoral aspect of it. Thus viewed from this criterion, the husband’s action is justified.
Conclusion Ethics describe beliefs about right and wrong. Judging whether a given action is ethical or not can be done from the various ethical theories; these are the teleological, deontological and the double effect.
Based from the more vivid and adequate arguments presented by both the teleological and deontological theories with respect to the present study, it is not morally upright for the husband to have sexual relations with his ailing life. He would rather take care of her until she recovers first. His actions are unethical since in the state the wife is in, she cannot make any sound decision since her communication is impaired.
Therefore, although the husband’s action is not ill informed, it may be regarded as rape. The husband has good intentions such as expressing love to his wife, being faithful and being responsible. Moreover, the resulting pregnancy could have further deteriorated the wife’s state of health. Although the double effect theory may tend to justify the husband’s action by overlooking the outcomes, the weight of the consequences of his sexual actions far outweigh his good intentions. His sexual actions were not thus ethical.
References Day, R., Paul, P. and Williams, B. (2009). Brunner and Suddarth’s Textbook of Canadian Medical-Surgical Nursing. Ontario: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Web.
Ferrell, O, C., Fraedrich, J. and Ferrell, L. (2009). Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making and Cases. New York: Cengage Learning. Web.
Page, R.M. (2010). Promoting Health and Emotional Well-Being in Your Classroom. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett Learning. Web.
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