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School Violence, Its Causes and Prevention Research Paper

School violence has become an international issue in education systems because it has affected not only delivery of educational services, but also lives of students.

Since education systems in various countries aim at enhancing intellectual capacity and shaping development of behaviors in society, it is critical in development of a peaceful and prosperous society, which relies on values and ethics. School violence is a global phenomenon for various studies show that due to globalization, developing countries are now experiencing high incidences of school violence signifying that they are adopting trends in developed countries.

However, education systems play significant role in unifying diverse society as it provides a platform where children socialize and share different values of society and become assimilated into diverse society.

According to Benbenishty and Astor, school violence is a global issue that needs concerted interventions from various countries and stakeholders in formulation of theories and policies to avert increasing trends of violence in schools (75). Therefore, how can functionalism and conflict theory help us understand the nature of school violence?

According conflict theory, violence is an inherent and natural tendency of human beings as it provides means of struggling and achieving resources.

People in the society are constantly struggling to a achieve resources such as power, class, and status to keep abreast with social, economic, and political dynamics that shape lives. Smith argues that, most social conflicts emanate from unequal distribution of resources; power, class, and status, hence making people to struggle endlessly and eventually resort to violence as a means of achieving the resources (216).

In schools, there exists inequality among students and staff. Given that there is great power, class, and status difference between staff and students, it gives a potential source of conflict.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sometimes tension occurs between student leaders and ordinary students due to power difference thus creating a conflict among students; moreover, students at times direct their aggressive behavior towards staff. Thus, existence of power, class, and status in schools forms the basis of violence that normally erupts many a times.

Functionalist theory perceives a society as a social system that depends on certain critical functions for society to survive sustainably and stand the test of time.

Therefore, since schools are social entities that function independently, they are social systems that need certain critical functions for them to run efficiently. According to Davis, for a social system to function effectively and efficiently, it requires appropriate allocation of roles and performance (4).

In schools, if there is poor allocation of roles that consequently results into poor performance, it affects functions of schools as a social system and in turn elicits conflict. This means that if administration fails to show appropriate leadership or students fail to obey leadership, conflicts arise. Thus, stalled functions due to insufficient leadership results into violence in schools.

Conclusively, violence in schools occurs due to unequal distribution of resources such as power, class, and status. Inequality in schools is the chief source of violence because conflicting parties will try to use violence as a means of achieving the scarce resources. Therefore, so long as there is inequality of resources in schools, violence is eminent.

In addition, poor administration of schools as social systems that require stringent allocation of roles and regulation of responsibilities results into conflicts and violence. Therefore, to avert rising cases of school violence across the world, education systems should ensure that there is equal distribution of resources and effective administration of schools.

Works Cited Benbenishty, Rami and Astor, Ron. School Violence in an International Context: A Call

We will write a custom Research Paper on School Violence, Its Causes and Prevention specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More for Global Collaboration in Research and Prevention. International Journal of Violence and School, 4.6 (2008): 59-81.

Davis, Kingsley. Functionalist Theory. Sociological Studies, 2009: 1-12.

Smith, Allan. Theory Cumulation and Schools of Thought: Conflict and Critical Theories. Sociology, 2007: 211-241.

Fashion Goes Round in Circles Research Paper

Nursing Assignment Help Table of Contents Clothes fashion history

Shoes fashion history

Vintage in fashion



Mostly used in accessories, footwear, and clothing, fashion is a term used to refer to a current popular trend or style. Fashion is the current trend of a person and it mostly concentrates on the outside appearance of people. Most people express their personality through fashion while others use it to hide a fact concerning a certain aspect of their lives.

Different people give a hidden message in fashion through makeup, clothes, shoes, accessories, and of late, phones. Designers are the key players in fashion matters and they are able to direct and influence fashion in many ways. Celebrities, opinion leaders, and store buyers work together with designers to influence direction of fashion.

Fashion across the world has its major centers at places where designers and manufactures of clothes and accessories work. The major centers include in Milan, Paris, and New York among others. Fashion applies to the current situation and it usually changes with time as people and circumstances change. Environmental situations and seasons are among the reasons that lead to changes in fashion.

A certain style or trend is usually popular for a given period, after which designers come up with other new trends. Fashions may change as many times as possible, but it goes round and round in circles because only a few things change in fashion. After a couple of years, fashion goes back to where it started.

Clothes fashion history The first fashion designer lived between 1826 and 1895 and he found corking success in the field, although he was not a dressmaker. During this time, customers did not have an option, but they used what was available in fashion.

With the success of the first designer, many designers came up and consulted artists to sketch designs. With the help of artists, designers put their designs on paper and interested customers ordered for the designed clothes.

Sketching thus became one of the most important things in clothing design. Most financially stable people preferred to make orders rather than buy complete ready-made garments. Paris and London were the prime places where fashion shows took place. Such places always had new designs thus designers from other countries visited Paris and London fashion shows for new styles and ideas.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the 1900s, the fashionable women wore Belle Époque dresses, which were almost similar to the ones worn in the 1850s. In 1910s, the fashionable dress had a few changes, which made it a little different in that, the waist was not as tight as Belle was. The dress was more soft, fluid, and lithe, and it was later styled in a simple way.

The former design required a woman to look for help, because it was hard to wear it and remove without help. The similarities in the dresses showed that the fashion was the same, apart from some few additions, giving evidence that fashion goes round in circles. During this time, the new fashion replaced the headgears with simple turbans, which were simple to use.

Fashion did not dictate on women clothes in 1940s at the time of war. Instead of coming up with new fashions, manufactured clothes for women were prescribed by necessity because many women did not have time for social events. They spent most of their time working, moaning, and visiting the wounded. The fashion that followed was the fashionable skirts worn by women. The skirts reached above the ankle and many young women wore them.

As years passed, bell-bottomed jeans were on fashion in the 1970s, and they gained great popularity with tie and dye being the popular garment of the decade. In the late twentieth century, the commonly used materials were Viscose, Spandex, and Lycra and their popularity spread in the whole world.

For two decades, designers had concentrated on the future until 1980s when they decided to turn back to the past for more ideas and inspirations.

By the turn of the 1990s, designers seemed to have run short of ideas and they started going back to older designs where they borrowed blueprints and ideas. Turning to the past for inspiration showed that designers were going back to the original ideas used by the former designers and they wanted to improve on the old fashions (North 2008, p.518).

The turning back for inspiration in the twentieth century was not the pioneer exercise; no, it only confirmed that fashion was going round in circles. In the 2000s, the generation involved in arts and fashion looked back to the past decades for greater inspiration, and it was able to keep new fashions.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Fashion Goes Round in Circles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Turning back to the past decades in the year 2000 onwards proves that the more fashion changes from time to time, the more it remains the same. It goes round in circles and that is why there is borrowing of ideas from one generation to another. Fashion has never gone out of style; only a few things are modified in fashion quarters.

Shoes fashion history In 1920s, women wore shoes that were wide and high heeled. The same women wore flat leather or ballet shoes in different occasions. In 1930s, people continued to wear high-heeled shoes and other flat-laced shoes for leisure.

Individuals who went out for trips or outdoor activities wore flat leather shoes. World War II started in 1940s and women became more conservative and started wearing flat shoes made with a cork and wooden soles.

The aim of the flat shoes was to provide comfort during the hard labor that women had to do. After World War II, many people in America started wearing sports shoes that were so popular that designers from other countries including Europe asked for ideas on the sports shoes from the Americans.

Wearing of sports shoes changed in the 1960s where both men and women turned to wearing sandals. In 1980s, designers turned back to the past for inspirations and they designed high-healed shoes similar to the ones worn in the 1920s.

The main difference between the high-healed shoes in the 1920s and the ones in 1980s was the thickness and physical appearance. The new shoes had thinner heals and they became a hit. Change in fashion takes place after a given season and most of the ideas in the contemporary times are a repetition of the 1920s.

Designers revisit the old ideas and make changes to come up with new fashion because a fashion may change from time to time, but it does not go out of style. The shoes worn in the early twentieth century are still fashionable with only slight changes here and there. Most of the shoes have details added and some are the same with only few additions and modifications in design.

Vintage in fashion Clothes made during the 1920s and before are antique clothing. Between 1920 and 1980, many people used vintage clothes. Vintage fashions are new types of clothes made using older designs. In vintage style, fashion changes, but the style does not change because designers imitate styles used in the past (Bartholomew 1977, p.2064).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Fashion Goes Round in Circles by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The difference between modern clothing and Vintage clothes is that, modern clothes are recently produced clothes and vintage clothes are clothes worn in the past. Such clothes only contain a small percentage of new materials that make them slightly different. The use of vintage clothes shows that fashion does not get out of style; it only goes round in circles from time to time.

Actually, most of the designers, manufactures, and retailers remain with dead stock after dealing with a given fashion for sometime. Manufacturers keep the warehouse stock and after several years, they add some pieces and sell the clothes under a new fashion.

Different people developed interest on vintage clothes because of celebrities and opinion leaders who wore the clothes. The need of environmental sustainability also led to the use of vintage clothes, which shows that people prefer the past fashions.

According to Bartholomew (1977), people are more interested in repairing, recycling, and reusing of the old clothes rather than throwing them away (p.2064). This has made fashion to go round in circles and one is sure to get a similar fashion after several years.

Currently, garment, in a certain way, resemble fashion designs worn in history. Most of the fashion designers rely on history and that is why manufactured clothes resemble the original clothes made in the early twentieth century.

An example of vintage reproductions is the clothes worn in 1990s (Bhardwaj

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