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Okrent, Daniel. Last Call: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition. Scribner (May 11, 2010) Essay

The author explores the process of prohibition of the production, sale and even transportation of alcohol and any other intoxicating liquor in the United States. He explains how this prohibition came into effect. He says that the prohibition came through the eighteenth amendment to the American constitution whose cause was fueled by several movements among them being the famous anti-immigrant sentiment and temperance movement among others.

He breaks down on the politics involved in this prohibition in the year 1919 till the enactment of the prohibition in the year that followed.

The author is generally trying to put across the changes that took place after the prohibition was effected both in terms of culture and way of life. He explores the reaction of the ordinary citizens where he asks and provides answers to this social experiment that seems not to be successful due to the outcomes witnessed like rise in gangster era.

The author relied on the primary sources to obtain first hand information concerning this scenario. He collected this information from the ordinary American citizens to gauge their perception concerning prohibition that was effected following the eighteenth amendment to the constitution. However he also employed secondary works like the constitution review in explaining the amendments made to the constitution that prohibited any intoxicating liquor in United States.

The sources were very appropriate to the main theme that the author was trying to put across following the fact that he wanted to explore the politics of prohibition and the consequences that followed. He had to get the information from the citizens themselves. Being a journalist, the author has demonstrated good skills on the use and analysis of various sources to explore the politics of prohibition.

One example demonstrating good use of the sources is where he explores prohibition not only in terms of what was amended in the constitution but also applies this knowledge to relate prohibition to the earliest themes in the 20th century and traces its roots of emergence from ethnic, religious, social and political backgrounds.

According to my own observation of the author’s ideas, I think he demonstrates some form of prejudice and bias. He terms the whole prohibition scenario as a failed social experiment. He says that many ordinary citizens did not respond positively following the enactment of this prohibition.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In other words, the ordinary American citizens did not welcome the amendment. As much as the law enforcers expected positive outcomes in terms of culture and way of life, the opposite turned out as the outcome.

According to my own assessment, this is a very interesting book in a way that it explores the process of change, enactment of change and the outcomes of change. As much as change is desirable, sometimes the more things are changed, the more they remain the same and this has been well demonstrated in this book where by banning of alcohol did not realize changes expected.

Instead, things remained the same as before leading to a failed social experiment. This is a very useful book in this course as it teaches on prohibition and effects of change. In order to be successful in enacting new laws, the ordinary citizens play a vital role since they are the ones that determine the success of the change.

Understand Buying Trends and the Psychology of Consumer Behavior Problem Solution Essay

Nursing Assignment Help Table of Contents Public Relations

Initial strategy

Second strategy


Public Relations Down St Restaurant has been identified to aid in the analysis of the public relation concepts. It is noteworthy that the restaurant is located in New York City. Public relation ideologies revolve around exploring restaurant as illustrated by goods and processes. It is the creation of consciousness to convince potential clientele why the hotel is the finest.

It uses various modes of announcement like media and Internet. The chief aim behind the public relations initiatives is to attain and keep hold of customers. The Down St Restaurant should apply the following public relation initiatives so as to maximize their profit.

Initial strategy One of the finest public relation initiatives is the utilization of Relationship Marketing (RM). It strikes an association between acquisition and retention of customers. This concept was initiated in 1983 and became more accepted in the 1990s (Donald 2005). The process of correlation marketing aims at networking, associations and exchanges during market strategies.

“Quality, customer care and promotion strategies must be put together, the initiative focuses on combining the trio into one, thus realizing their concerted effort” (Donald, 2005). RM involves allowing the customer to assess your services. This will enable an individual to identify the loopholes within the restaurant.

This will enable one to take corrective measures on subsequent occasions. It also involves rewarding significant proportions of outstanding customers. The result will be gaining maximum knowledge in consumer desires and wants. This will see the restaurant offering the finest services to their customers. The customers will also experience enhancement in the services when they revisit the restaurant.

The main challenge in implementing RM as a strategy is that it requires the attention of the whole organization. All players in the restaurant should gather enough information relating to the purchaser.

The initiative requires a lot of time and may consume numerous resources before actual realization of the returns. Some customers may as well give flawed information during assessment. This is to please the hotel owners.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Second strategy Another strategy that will see Down St Restaurant riding higher than its competitors is the use of advertisement (Malin, 2009). The aim of advertising is to make the restaurant as attractive and enticing as possible. This strategy allows the restaurant to communicate to the general public about their services and why they are the best place to be.

The initiative involves both indoor and outdoor marketing channels of advertisement. They include print displays, broadcast advertisements, which are aimed at reaching out to masses. The trick here is the choice of the best media for various groups of clients. Choose the best place to position your billboards and other print displays.

The restaurant should major more in outside advertisement, but indoor techniques should not be left out. The hotel should appear in the media when it offers discounted rates to draw in more people.

Advertisements can also be put in magazines, directories and newspapers. Magazine is preferred because it read by many people. It can also contain specialized services to various segments of people. Any communication strategy should be straight to the point for it to have a positive impact on the business.

The major drawback of this initiative is that, it may prove to be too expensive. Channels like television are exorbitant, yet the feature passes out very fast. It is always an enormous challenge when the advertisement displays more than what is in the offing. Customers will shy away when their expectations are not met.

References Donald, D. (2005). Strategic planning for public relations (2nd edition). New Jersey: Routledge

Malin, H. (2009). Hotel a Case Study. University of Gavle

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