This is the story about the effect of war on people who were at home, boys in particular, the writer shows that connection between boys and their fathers are strong and that two young adolescent boys try to grow up and be as strong and fearless as their fathers and be adamant to face the situation that war made them to face. Briefly, it is a story about searching personal identity and way of life.
The two boys are growing in Oregon where almost all “fathers” were taken to the war. The author describes how war influenced lives and characters of the boys and how it changed their visions of life.
Josh and his friend are trying to adapt to the harsh reality, as they understand that if they are taken to war as their fathers, there will not be mercy and place for kindness, “If you stepped out of the ring, you lost. If you cried, you lost.
If you got knocked out or if you yelled stop, you lost. Afterward we drank Coca-Cola and smoked Marlboros…” (Percy 3). The boys fight on the backyard, and the rules are stick.
They are similar to the rules on the battle field: one wrong step, one missed gesture, one second of weakness and you killed. This is how they were preparing for cruel life and, possibly, to going to the war.
However, it was not the only reason for their fights. The author shows a strong connection between father and son. The e-mails from fathers to their sons were the best value and, as the author mentions, “sometimes, on the computer, I would hit refresh, refresh, refresh, hoping” (Percy 8) Hoping that everything will be fine and that if the boy is strong, it will add courage and power to his father and help him fight the enemy and survive.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In fact, hope is the only thing that supports the ones who are in the war and the ones who at home and think about their relatives who can be killed any time.
Furthermore, strong connection of fathers and sons can be seen in the way boys behaved and felt about their fathers. The two were fierce and they put themselves against nature, other men in the town and situations they faced. The boys new they should be ready to something terrible that could happen with them or with their fathers.
They wanted to be ready to overcome the ones who could hurt them, to give a response to offend. In such way, they wanted their fathers to proud them, “this is what we all wanted: to please our fathers, to make them proud, even though they had left us” (Percy 4). These strong words demonstrate the “masculinity” of the story and real male characters.
Finally, the boys are trying to grow up and find their identity while opposing themselves to the odds in their town. They do not have support from their fathers as they are far from and do their duties.
The boys are trying to establish justice when kidnapping a military recruiter and impend to kill him. This was done in the attempt to show him how their fathers were feeling in the war and what the boys felt at the moment.
This was an attempt to show that they are ready and strong and different from the ones who sent their fathers to war, and unlike them, they were courageous and ready to face the enemy:
“We got on our bikes and we drove to Bend and we drove so fast I imagined catching fire like a meteor, burning up in a flash, howling as my heat consumed me, as we made our way to the U.S. Marine Recruiting Office where we would at last answer the fierce alarm of war and put our pens to paper and make our fathers proud” (Percy 20).
We will write a custom Essay on It’s Just the Way the Game Is Played”: The Move from Adulthood. An Interpretation of Benjamin Percy’s Story “Refresh, Refresh. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More And thus, they grew up. Now, they were sure that they were real men and they grew up, as they would never allowed themselves to cry in the moment of danger in front of the enemy.
The story provides the way boys grew up and established their individualities. They passed the way from boxing matches to readiness to “answer the fierce alarm of war” (Percy 20) as men.
This was the way from a child to an adulthood that was determined by the situation of war. The boys had two solutions: to be weak as kidnapped military recruiter, or to be strong and courageous as their fathers. They choose the variant that was the most appropriate for them, they choose the ways of “real men”.
Works Cited Percy, Benjamin. Refresh, Refresh: Stories. New York: Graywolf Press, 2007.
Inequality’s Philosophical Description Critical Essay
Nursing Assignment Help Table of Contents The Master and Slave Concept of Nietzsche
When examining the statement “there is hardly any inequality among men in the state of nature” by Rousseau one cannot help but think of the concept of the Ubermensch developed by Nietzsche.
Nietzsche describes human beings as being in a phase of intermediate evolution between apes and the overman wherein due to this intermediary state humans can thus be broken down into two distinct categories of master and slave (White and Hellerich, 39).
For Rousseau his argument focuses on the apparent equality of all human beings at the point of being born and it is only when outside environmental factors are introduced that the state of inequality among men occurs.
This can take the form of having parents who are more economically well off, being born in a 1st world country or being within an area that fosters better growth and education. Rosseau does not mention factors relating to physical or mental superiority since for him such factors are developed as a result of environmental consequences and are not inherent in a person at the time of birth.
It is only when sufficient environmental influence is enacted on the growth of an individual that true inequality occurs. As such, under the ideas of Rosseau can it can be presumed that if two men were born in exactly the same situation, in the same environment and with the same background and economic circumstances then these men would continue to be equal.
Taking this particular viewpoint to its zenith it can thus be stated if a large enough population were born also under the same circumstances, environment, background etc. then everyone in it would be equal as well. This particular conclusion can be arrived to by assuming that the state of nature mentioned by Rosseau means a state with absolutely no outside interference and letting the natural progression of human growth take its place.
The Master and Slave Concept of Nietzsche The inherent problem with the proposed concept of Rossaeu is that it fails to take into account the possibility of inequality naturally occurring as a result of the need for concerted effort in order to achieve a particular end.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nietzsche argues that humans can basically be divided into two distinct categories namely that of the master and the slave which in essence are distinctions used today in the concepts of leaders and followers (White and Hellerich, 39).
It can be stated that from a certain sociological standpoint the concept postulated by Nietzsche does in fact have a basis in the way society is organized.
For example, a progressive society cannot be composed entirely of leaders since someone has to be the one to actually follow the orders of the leaders on the other hand a society composed entirely of followers would be unguided and thus would not be able to actually effectively commit to a goal requiring concerted effort.
While such a concept agrees with the statement of Rosseau that “there is no inequality among men in the state of nature” it based more upon physical and biological characteristics rather the psychological (Beyond Good and Evil, 1).
By its very nature the concept of leadership places a person above another; Rosseau is actually erroneous in believing that the state of nature does not create inequality when in fact nature itself creates various examples of inequality.
For example, packs of wolves have a leader who is the same physically and biologically as all the other members yet is made a the leader due to the necessity for most groups, human or otherwise, to have a guiding force behind the groups actions.
This notion is applicable to humans as it is to animals since any concerted effort requires a certain dominating personality to be able to control individuals towards a particular goal (Allen, 386 – 402). Thus it can be seen that the concept of inequality occurs naturally in nature (Allen, 386 – 402).
We will write a custom Essay on Inequality’s Philosophical Description specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the case of interpreting the state of nature as being an environment with no outside interference towards development inequality will still develop since if there need of any concerted effort in such an environment the concept of a leader will inevitably arise thus resulting in creation of a system of inequality where there is an individual dictating others what to do.
Conclusion Based on the findings of this paper I can say that I disagree with the statement of Rosseaus since for me inequality is still evident in most states of nature. I can even go so far as state that inequality is even a necessity in the grand scheme of things.
Works Cited Allen, James Sloan. “Nietzsche and Wilde: An Ethics of Style.” Sewanee Review. 386-
402. University of the South, 2006. Literary Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.
“Beyond Good and Evil.” Ethics (Ready Reference series) (1994): 1. Literary Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.
White, Daniel R., and Gert Hellerich. “The Ecological Self: Humanity and Nature in
Nietzsche and Goethe.” European Legacy 3.3 (1998): 39. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web.
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