There has always been a disparity in the provision of healthcare as the larger population cannot afford medical insurance cover and the drugs. Cancer in the United States is quite prevalent among the citizens and the disease mainly affects the minority groups, in comparison with the majority in the population.
The essay addresses the demographics of prostate cancer in the U.S, healthcare demographics, and challenges faced in marketing the healthcare sector, as well as possible remedies to alleviate the posed challenges in the healthcare sector.
Cancer is the second killer disease in the United States, after heart disease (Fierro, 2006). Prostate cancer affects men and is the most frequently diagnosed form of cancer. It is estimated that by the end of 2011, more than 240,890 males of African American descent will form new cases of people with prostate cancer (American Cancer Society, 2011).
African Americans are more prone to prostate cancer than the white Americans. Over the years, the incidents of prostate cancer have been stable but it has been increasing gradually. In 2011, it is estimated that some 33,720 Americans have succumbed to prostate cancer (American Cancer Society, 2011).
Prostate cancer has been reported as the second cancer killer disease among the white race in the United States. Although the deaths have reduced among the American males, it is believed that African Americans are more prone and have a double likelihood of dying from prostate cancer than the white American males.
Prostate cancer is associated with risk factors like age, family history, ethnicity, and race. It is estimated that approximately 62% of prostate cancer cases are diagnosed among males of 65 years and above (American Cancer Society, 2011). This is because age is a risk factor.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, prostate cancer is more prevalent among men of 50 years and above, with the prevalence estimated at 95%. The minority population in America is more prone to prostate cancer compared to the white American males.
These have the highest prostate cancer incidences compared to other members of the global population. According to the American Cancer Society (2011), the north Western Europe and North America areas have the highest incidents of prostate cancer compared to South America and Asia.
Another cause of prostate cancer is genetic predisposition, with genetic studies showing that at least 5% to 10% prostate cancer incidents are genetically inherited (American Cancer Society, 2011). Obesity has the likelihood of triggering prostate cancer, while processed dairy and meat foods have also been associated with prostate cancer.
The demographics in the U.S have been changing over the years. Immigrants in the U.S, especially the Hispanics and Caucasian and other minorities like the African Americans, are estimated to form a third of the U.S population. This population is expected to rise and become the majority group by the year 2050.
This increase is expected put pressure on the health care sector in the U.S because currently an increasingly higher number of Americans are unable to access secure health insurance cover.
The increasing immigrants have led to conflicts in the healthcare policies enacted by the policymakers. According to Albert (2007), the demographics show an increase in the number of the aging population among the Americans. It is estimated that more than 20% of the U.S population will be over fifty by 2030 (Albert, 2007).
This population has a negative effect on the healthcare sector because it would be dependent on Medicare health services. This would also demand more professionals in the healthcare sector especially physical therapy, medicine, and geriatric. It is believed that healthcare sector is expected to increase because of the aging baby boomers increase.
We will write a custom Essay on Healthcare Demographics of Prostate Cancer in the US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The healthcare sector in the U.S is faced with related challenges because of the changing demographics among its population. The cost of health care provision is expected to rise by 2030 in tandem with a rising dependence. The old and the immigrants who depend on Medicare will force the taxman to impose more taxes on the Americans in order to cater for the increasing demand of healthcare services.
Fierro (2006) notes that Medicare and Medicaid costs are expected to increase because the population demanding the healthcare programs is increasing. Policymakers are faced with challenge of reducing the costs but estimates show that by 2014 more than $250 billion would be required to fund Medicaid.
According to Fierro (2006), the ballooning medical expenditures are due to increased pharmaceuticals costs. This is likely to affect the old because they need more drug prescriptions and home based medical care which is expensive. This would affect the funding as more healthcare expenditure would be required.
According to Fierro (2006), home healthcare and drugs prescriptions have increased over the last decade. However, chronic diseases are allocated more than 83% of funds spend on healthcare services. The old are the ones who are supported by the chronic wellness programs that affect them at the old age. This is expected to increase the spending on Medicare by 96% and 83% on Medicaid healthcare programs (Fierro, 2006).
This is inclusive of the wellness programs set to take care of the old American population. The demographics of the aging population have the indication that the market for those in need of healthcare services (and more so the old) is expected to increase. This is because their number is projected to increase by 2030 requiring increased provision of medical services, drugs and home based healthcare facilities and medication.
Each year, the baby boomers are at an increased risk of contracting chronic diseases and this increases the demand for medical health care. Individual should engage in more health preventive measures like exercising to avoid chronic illness that is common among the young people.
Obesity and overweight is becoming a threat in the U.S and so are the related chronic diseases. The community and the society can engage the youth and other people to health eating practices and exercises to avoid diseases that may require wellness programs.
In conclusion, cancer kills more people in the U.S, with prostate cancer killing more African Americans males than the whites. The trend is increasing and related healthcare factors like age, race, diet and genetics being causes of cancer.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Healthcare Demographics of Prostate Cancer in the US by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Males of 50 years and above have high chance of dying from prostate cancer than their counter parts of over 65 years. North America has higher prostate cancer prevalent rate than the southern part. The healthcare sector is being faced with the problems of increased costs; expensive prescriptive drugs as well as home based medical care.
More funds are needed to cater for the increasing population of the aging as well as funding the wellness programs for chronic diseases and illness. The market of medical services is expected to boom because the population of the aging is expected to rise by 2030. Individuals can engage in preventive methods like exercising and eating balanced diets.
Reference List Albert, A. (2007). The Impact of Aging On Society: Our Changing Demographics. Web.
American Cancer Society. (2011). Cancer Facts
The Healthcare Law Analytical Essay
Nursing Assignment Help Table of Contents Managerial decision-making
Demand, supply and market equilibrium
Consumer behavior and rational choice
Application of demand functions in the healthcare law
The healthcare law that was enacted this spring by the U.S. President Barrack Obama aimed at providing U.S citizens with medical cover. The law established universal medical services to all U.S. citizens and to be paid for by the federal government. The enactment of the law ends the need for private medical insurance in the country that will now provide supplementary medical coverage.
The government would fund the national healthcare through taxation and other funds that would replace the health insurance premiums that were initially paid by the citizens. This paper examines the application of economic concepts such as law of demand supply, equilibrium and managerial decisions on this healthcare law.
Managerial decision-making Every organization aims at maximizing the profit made by the organization. In order to maximize profits, the organization needs to minimize costs. According to Png and Lehman, the management of an organization has a duty to formulate policies and make decisions that would lead to the achievement of the set goals (36).
Given that the business environment is dynamic, firm mangers usually rely on strategic decision making that involves making of decisions based on the strategies that would maximize the use of firm resources.
Some of the strategic decisions made by an organization include decisions on cost minimization and effective utilization of firm resources. In order to minimize costs, the management ensures that the operational processes are efficient, cheap quality inputs are utilized efficiently while creating valuable products that satisfy consumer needs.
Basing on the managerial decision-making, the federal government is similar to the management of organizations. It needs to ensure that all healthcare needs of U.S citizens are satisfied. Therefore, it sought to satisfy the healthcare needs by establishing the national healthcare act that would be funded through taxation. This decision to enact the act is optimal because the federal government would establish a healthy nation that would contribute to economic growth positively through increased production.
Demand, supply and market equilibrium According to Png and Lehman, both buyers and sellers meet in a market in which there is the exchange of goods and services (121). Economic resources are usually in short supply while the needs that are to be fulfilled using the resources are usually indefinite. In addition, different people and regions are bestowed with different resources that satisfy different human needs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Due to different endowment of resources to countries and regions, some countries have a comparative advantage in the production of a given good or service over others. In addition, the differences in resources endowment have made countries and individuals within the country to be dependent on external economies hence; they would always demand the supply of given goods and services for the fulfillment of their needs.
The law of demand posits that the demands for goods and services shrink as the prices of the goods/services increases while other things are held steady. Demand is provided in terms of quantity of the goods. The quantities of goods that are demanded by clients differ from one individual to another basing on various factors that affect demand.
Fluctuations in the quantity of a given good/service that is required by consumers fluctuates over time based various factors such as the level of proceeds for consumers, the price of the good and availability of substitutes among other factors.
The supply of goods and services occurs in the market too. Suppliers provide goods based on the quantity of the goods that consumers require in order to meet their needs. The quantity of goods/services supplied is a function of many factors including the price of the good/service, level of income for consumers, productivity and the amount of goods/services that consumers need in order to meet their needs.
The law of supply postulates that the supply of a given good/service declines as the price of the good/service decreases and vice versa with other factors being held steady (Png and Lehman 357).
Equilibrium in the market is obtained at the level in which the total of goods/services demanded by clients equates the level of goods/services supplied by different sellers in the same market.
At equilibrium, the price at which the sellers sell their products to customers is referred to as the equilibrium price while the equilibrium quantity is the quantity supplied by sellers and bought by clients in the market. At equilibrium, there is no incentive for the suppliers to increase the goods supplied because the price and income remains the same in the short term.
We will write a custom Essay on The Healthcare Law specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Similarly, customers have no incentive to increase the amount of goods demanded in the short term. The changes in other factors in the business environment can cause the amount of goods/services supplied and demanded in the market to change. Some of the factors include changes in demographics, income and productivity among other factors (Png and Lehman 123).
The economic concepts of demand and supply could also be applied to the healthcare act. The customers in include all U.S. citizens that needs medical care. The supplier is the government. The level of demand would increase if the U.S. population increased or the levels of epidemic or accidents in the country increased. The equilibrium in the provision healthcare services to the citizens would be achieved whenever the supplied services would be equal to the demanded services.
Optimization techniques According to Png and Lehman, an optimizing firm should keep producing as long as the marginal costs incurred during production are less than the marginal revenue (183). During the production period, the company should always focus on minimizing processing costs to ensure that it meets its profit maximization objective. An organization should produce until the level in which the magical costs realized in the course of production are equal to the marginal revenue.
This is the optimal position of the firm. Any increase in production would result in losses. The management of an organization can alter this position if long-term production capacity is created. This can only happen in new management tools such as investment in new technologies and expansion of production space and plant.
The application of optimal techniques to the healthcare law would mean that the federal government should increase the provision of healthcare services as long as the marginal costs incurred in healthcare service provision is less than the marginal tax collected by the government.
The optimal level of healthcare service provision would be when the marginal cost of the services is equal to the marginal tax collected. New decisions to use advanced technology and increase healthcare services provision capacity should sought once the government increases service provision at the expense of healthcare costs.
Consumer behavior and rational choice Organizations are involved in the production of goods and services while consumers are mainly to make consumption decisions for the produced goods. The theory of demand postulates that consumers demand goods (services) in order to meet their unlimited wants. After the goods/services are provided, the consumers consume them for satisfaction that is measured in terms of utility.
Consumers are rational in their consumption decisions because they always choose the best basket of supplied goods that would best meet their needs given the prevailing circumstances. They therefore decide the quantity of goods to purchase and the amount of money to spend on the goods. Given the rationality of consumers, the healthcare service consumers in the U.S., the U.S citizens are rational consumers too.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Healthcare Law by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They would make decisions on the type of healthcare services demanded. However, the amount of money to spend on the services would not be made by the citizens, but by the federal government through taxation.
Demand functions Demand functions indicate the existing relationship between the levels of the good demanded and the determinants of the levels demanded by the customer. The quantity of a given good demanded by consumers is determined by various factors such as the price of the good, the level of income, the prices of other related goods such as compliments and substitutes and tastes and preferences. Given these factors, the demand function of a given good can be expressed as indicated below.
D=f(P,I,PXPYT) where D- quantity demanded, P- price of the good demanded, I- Income, PX– price of related good x, PY– Price related good y and T- tastes and preferences.
Application of demand functions in the healthcare law The demand function could also be applied to the healthcare law and the demand of healthcare in the U.S. The U.S. citizens are the consumers of healthcare services provided by the federal government under the healthcare law.
The demand of healthcare services in the U.S is determined by various factors such as exposure to risk factors, levels of income, price of healthcare among other factor. The healthcare demand function can be expressed as below.
H=f(R,I,P, O) where H- healthcare quantity demanded, R-exposure to risk factors, I-levels of Income, P-charge son the healthcare and O-other factors
An increase in any of the causative factors could alter the level of healthcare services demanded by the U.S. citizens. For instance, an increase in the number of people exposed to risky environments that could affect negatively their health could increase the demand of healthcare services. An increase in healthcare taxation could reduce the demand for healthcare services because many people would opt for private services. This is similar to an increase in income for U.S citizens.
Production theory Production of goods and services entails utilization of various resource inputs such as labor, power, and raw materials among other factors. The theory of production involves the determination of the levels of input factors to be used by an organization to produce a given level of out.
An organization would combine different levels of factors of inputs such as labor and capital to produce a given output. However, in the course of productivity, organizations aim at minimizing the costs incurred while ensuring that the profit realized are maximum. A firm can experience increasing returns to scale if the marginal costs incurred reduce as the produced output increases.
Constant returns to scale are experienced whenever the marginal cost realized by the organization is constant as the output produced increases. On the contrary, decreasing returns to scale would be realized if the marginal costs of an organization incurred during productivity would increase as output increases.
Therefore, it is advisable that the management of the organization should produce up to that level in which the marginal cost equals the marginal revenue in order to avoid reduction in scale of returns that could lead to an exit from the market (Png and Lehman 319).
The application of the theory of production to the healthcare law implies that the government provides healthcare services using capital and labor. Capital used in the productivity of the services includes the buildings, latest technological equipment in public hospital vehicles among other capital tools.
Labor on the other hand includes all healthcare professionals employed by the state to provide quality healthcare to U.S. nationals. The cost incurred in the provision of healthcare services includes the cost of capital and labor while the revenue is obtained from healthcare taxation. Increasing returns would be realized whenever the marginal cost of providing healthcare services decreases as service provision increases.
On the contrary, the federal government would realize reducing returns to scale whenever the marginal costs incurred by the state in providing healthcare services increases as provision of healthcare services increases. The optimal healthcare service output would be at the position in which the level of marginal cost of healthcare service provision equals marginal revenue from taxes (Png and Lehman 170).
The federal government in the healthcare sector in the long run should pursue technological change and industrial revolution. This would enable the federal government increase and improve the provision of healthcare services to U.S. citizens. However, the federal government can pursue technological change if it realizes that it is providing healthcare services under decreasing returns to scale. This change of strategy would ensure that the government minimizes costs while maximizing healthcare tax revenue.
Work Cited Png, Ivan and Lehman, Dale. Managerial Economic. New York: Willey-BlackWell. 2007.
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