This is quite discouraging even to the people who are not married. One wonders at the purpose of the marriage vows and the place they have in an individual’s life.
Solot admits that she did not have the enthusiasm to get married.” Perhaps it has to do with too many unhappily married people and the divorces I’ve seen, too many breezily pledged lifetime vows that lose their meaning long before the lifetimes end”(Solot, 2011, p481).
The dillusionment with marriage is quite understandable due to the high rates of divorce. Young women now prefer to cohabit rather than take the vows or walk down the aisle. In fact when several married couples are questioned they admit that they lived with their partner before they got married. Some of them even had children before they did a formal union.
The high divorce rates have caused researchers to investigate the major causes of divorce. There have also been parallel studies conducted on the causes of the decline in marriage.
A study on couples investigating causes of divorce found that couples cited infidelity as one of the major causes of divorce. In marriages where one of the partners has admitted to fidelity, it was also a very high predicting factor for divorce. When a partner is unfaithful, it mostly ends up with the marriage going to the rocks.
However, fidelity should not be construed to be the major cause of divorce. Infidelity is usually as a result of estrangement between the spouses. There is low communication and the spouses are unsatisfied in their relationship.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The couples who see the real causes and not infidelity progress faster in future relationships than the ones who do not. “Infidelity appears to play a central role in many people’s understandings of how their marriages unravel, and individuals who cite infidelity as a cause of divorce show poorer adjustment than individuals who cite other causes” (Amato, 2003)
Other reasons for divorce that were given were personality clashes and lack of communication. The partners are unable to communicate or listen to each other leading to frustration. There are other major causes of divorce such as mental cruelty, physical abuse, drug use and drinking.
The study found that women were more active than their men in identifying problems in the relationship and desiring to solve the issue. The men were generally very passive. Due to these differences in behavior between the genders, the men could not really recall or narrate what caused the divorce while the women would narrate very clearly.
Researchers have put forward that people marry when the gains from marriage exceed the gains in being single. The people marry to have children, conduct risk pooling in terms of sharing resources and to share leisure time. When individuals come together they now have access to higher levels of wealth. They can achieve so much than they would have achieved if they were alone.
The main reason people marry is not for money, however it is a great byproduct for the ones who are doing well financially.
However with advances in the market place, in terms of decrease in discrimination against women in the market place and changes in technology allowing what required skilled labor to be done by less skilled individual has made the gains in marriage seem low. Women now have financial independence and the invention of the pill caused them to limit disruption in their professional careers. This has given women the economic power to end divorce if they so wish.
In times of economic hardship, there is stress in the family with the relationship more likely to disintegrate into divorce. During the booms and recessions in the economy, researchers have found out that the divorce rates decrease and increase respectively.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Causes of Divorce in America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Research has shown that wealth and education works towards the couples having a healthier marriage.” Marriage has declined across all income groups, but it has declined far less among couples who make the most money and have the best education. These couples are also less likely to divorce”(Harden, 2011, p 481). The wealthy tend to choose among their economic class. It is the realization of what financial strain can do to a marriage.
The well-educated partners have higher standards of relationship. They expect a substantial level or high level of emotional support, companionship and relationship fulfillment. They therefore tend to choose people from the same social class so that they are not disappointed.
Another cause of divorce has been changes in legislature removing hurdles from couples or individuals who want to divorce their partners. “In the 1950s, most states required evidence of marital fault before allowing a marriage to be dissolved.
Beginning in the late 1960s, many states introduced “irreconcilable differences” as grounds for divorce; effectively ushering in a period of unilateral divorce— divorce upon the request of either spouse, regardless of the wishes of his or her partner”(Stevenson
Industrialization and transformation in Thomas W. Hanchett’s and Paul Johnson works Compare and Contrast Essay
Nursing Assignment Help Table of Contents Introduction
Space and the City
Industrialization and transformation in Thomas W. Hanchett’s Sorting out the New South City: Race, Class, and Urban Development in Charlotte, 1875-1975 and A Shopkeeper’s Millennium by Paul Johnson
Introduction The history of every city is unique though we can easily trace certain patterns in development of settlements through time in different countries. For instance, the cities in the United States of America have similar history in terms of transformation and the role of industrialization in the formation of neighborhoods.
Class and race distinctions were obvious before industrialization came to the country whereas their interactions with the new way of life became apparent when the city emerged as a scope of neighborhoods each based on class and racial distinctions.
The concepts of transformation and industrialization can be seen in the books Sorting out the New South City: Race, Class, and Urban Development in Charlotte, 1875-1975 (1998) by Thomas W. Hanchett and A Shopkeeper’s Millennium (1978) by Paul Johnson.
Space and the City Race and class. Every city has its functions as well as every district of it is inhabited by people that have something in common.
Though it is difficult to stay calm while talking about racial discrimination that took place a long before such a concept appeared, racial and class distinctions can be considered one of the primary reasons why neighborhoods were built in this way. As such, Hanchett (1998) labeled the chapters of his book in accordance with the racial belonging of the citizens that inhabited the neighborhoods in Charlotte, North Carolina.
As such, the distinction between different races was obvious even in the framework of the old country town where employees were farmers as well as their employers. At the same time, every person knew about those transparent borders that existed between the neighborhoods and chances of living in one of those.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Relationships between employees and employers can be considered one of the complicated issues in the world history. The roles may shift, the rights may widen while it is impossible to predict the changes in economical development of the society.
As such, people that lived in Rochester, New York and Charlotte, North Carolina could not guess that employees would obtain a kind of freedom with regard to independent living compared to the living on the territory of their employer before industrialization and further changes. As reported by Johnson (1978) about working men that performed different tasks in the farms, “these men moved too fast to be counted” (p. 37).
At the same time, “day laborers and journeyman craftsmen made up 71 percent of the adult male work force” (Johnson, 1978, p. 38). In this respect, there were enough men to work though not all of them were representatives of the upper classes.
Employment and urban structure. Transformation of so-called country towns was an integral part of the changing circumstances. In other words, the space of the city Charlotte and the one of Rochester was logically divided into the territory of white-collars and blacks, rich people and those who could not afford even commodities.
At the same time, the practical framework of such division was obvious as people obtained a chance to live on their own when the industrialization rose. However, as suggested by Johnson (1978), “Rochester retained the economic functions and much of the look and feel of a country town” (p. 37).
This means that basic economic functions were shaped before industrialization and the transformations were insignificant regarding the previous area planning of the city. Rochester, as well as many other cities of the time, was a country town with its functions and traditions and employees could easily live in the house of their employer due to the necessity of waking up early and perform various functions.
Every person had certain rights though the rules of living were not written but clear to everyone because they concerned the division of neighborhoods. It is obvious that the current neighborhoods are results of the policies and traditions that existed long before the industrialization shifted roles of employees and employers.
We will write a custom Essay on Industrialization and transformation in Thomas W. Hanchett’s and Paul Johnson works specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The previous scheme introduced an employer and his helpers who were hired to fulfill the same job or other minor operations than the employer. As reported by Johnson (1978), the industrialization shifted roles of employers and employees and changed the way they were perceived: a new image of the trading field completed “the separation of men who made shoes from those who sold them” (p. 39).
As such, people treated those two categories of workers differently making distinctions between men that can sell things and those who are able only to make those. However, the main distinction lies in the manufacturing of commodities and the fields of specialization of other people that were not involved into metal and machinery issues.
Hanchett (1998) outlines the situation in the urban planning as an integral part of the process of industrialization which contributed greatly to urbanization making countrymen move to cities while seeking for a job.
However, tension in the cities such as Charlotte made everything even worse: “tensions that had arisen during the 1890s and goaded the development of a new feature on Charlotte’s urban landscape: sizable blue-collar residential districts” (Hanchett, 1998, p. 90). At the same time, it is necessary to emphasize that ‘black’ neighborhoods also emerged in the process of industrialization when representatives of two races tried to avoid each other at least in their residence while they had to work together.
Nevertheless, the problem of neighborhoods became apparent only for people that care about it and think that the historic differentiation based on race and class belonging became an unwritten rule for all citizens. The times change as well as traditions of urban planning; so, people are free to choose their neighborhoods.
Transformation and time. Transformations in urban planning can be treated as the result of changes that took place in society and in economic situation while the roots of those changes lie deep in the class distinctions between masters and slaves. Though manufacturers had to produce a lot of commodities, the blue-collars could be also divided into specific groups in accordance with the industry in which they were involved.
As such, Hanchett (1998) suggests that “a 1926 survey showed 141 Charlotte manufacturers producing a total of 81 different commodities” (p. 94) while “corps of carpenters, brick masons, and painters almost matched the number of textile mill employees. A third important blue-collar group were the metal workers and machinery men” (p. 95).
In other words, the blue-collars were workers that were involved into the manufacturing industries that produced commodities while lack of demand was an integral part of the industries where blacks were the majority of the work force.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Industrialization and transformation in Thomas W. Hanchett’s and Paul Johnson works by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Transformations cannot be made within a year or two. At the same time, the changes in the neighborhoods of Rochester and Charlotte cannot be eliminated within a year or two because they have deep roots in the history of those cities based on class and race discrimination and consequences of industrialization.
In other words, the cities like Rochester and Charlotte that were country towns could remain those silent country towns with farmers and small workshops whereas the period of industrialization enabled people of those cities to take their chance and become manufacturers and salesmen.
When talking about the history of transformation in the neighborhoods, it is necessary to focus on the reasons and consequences while the urban planning cannot be changed because people built their neighborhoods consciously without being forced to do that. Besides, no person can force others to live in the neighborhood with someone he/she does not like regardless of the reasons for such dislike for those people.
Conclusion People may choose whether to live in Charlotte or in Rochester though every of the cities with long history lives in accordance with traditions that depend on the class and racial discrimination that emerged long before industrialization.
It is necessary to understand that industrialization cannot be treated as the main and only reason for such a division where black neighborhoods are clearly distinct from those of blue-collars. Every person should be able to differentiate between the consequences and stereotypes that can be overcome with regard to the changes that take place in modern cities.
References Hanchett, T. W. (1998). Sorting out the New South City: Race, Class, and Urban Development in Charlotte, 1875-1975. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.
Johnson, P. (1978). A Shopkeeper’s Millennium. New York: Hill and Wang.
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