It is said that it may be possible to prove that African travelers may have landed in America before the Europeans did and in a bid to support this, there are some stone carvings of a Mexican era called Olmec that have facial features of Africans. Christopher Columbus was termed as the first man to discover America. In his expedition, he had a black navigator named Pedro Nino. When Christopher Columbus arrived in Hispaniola he was accompanied by Africans.
This is now currently called Spain. When they left Hispaniola, they were termed as free people and that way they were free by the time they were getting into the Spanish American colonies. Another man called Vasco Balboa travelled to the Pacific Ocean and with him were about thirty Africans. When all this was happening the Europeans had not yet set foot in America.
Slavery was not a new thing and it did not start in America; it was only continued there when the settlers started streaming in. Hernan Cortez started a revolution for the Aztec Empire; black Spanish (Conquistadors) people were trying to resist him in a bid to set up their own kingdom.
The Africans who had been brought in from Africa were used as casual laborers in Mexico, Puerto Rico and Cuba. After Hernan defeated the uprising, they were awarded land by the Spanish King and they started farming.
They were able to produce wheat in bulk. It is also in record that a run-away Moroccan born Muslim slave called Esteban and his friends had tried escaping from the slavery. They boarded a small boat in a bid to free themselves but many died in the sea and only a couple made it as they were washed ashore to what is today referred to as Texas.
This Moroccan is the first known person of African accent to ever set foot in today’s Western part of the United States. Esteban was however included in an expedition that was commandeered by a Mexican known as Marcos Niza. Esteban was killed in this expedition in the town of Hawikuh and this today is known as the boarder of Arizona and New Mexico.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Africans did not stop their quest to discover more land though this was not the primary aim of the expeditions. They went on to accompany Francisco Vasquez from Mexico to the current Kansas. Some Africans chose to settle there. Now the Spanish Kingdom had come to a consensus with the Indians after intense fighting between the Spaniards and the Indians.
Through this, Indian slavery was abolished in their new colonies. The Africans who had been freed were however restricted from wearing gold, pearls or silk unless they were married to a Spaniard man and they were not also of elite status unless married to a Spaniard.
Africans are regarded as some of the first founders of a number of towns in New Mexico, Texas, Santa Fe, and California just to mention a few. There was also a race that was referred to as mulattoes. These were a combination of European and African ethnicity. They were classified as Africans; they were also forcefully shipped to Latin America and forced to labor in farms and mines.
There was a group of fugitive slaves who elected Gaspar Yanga as their spokesman and they were successful in signing a memorandum of agreement with the Spanish king. Through this they were granted their freedom and their own town too.
This however went on for a period of over two hundred years and the British came in and colonized America, and this led to the streaming in of Europeans in America. Blacks were recognized as free settlers and they were also indicted in the State House of Representatives.
The changes have been phenomenon and black women were first allowed to vote in Wyoming; and elsewhere children of black accent were allowed to attend school though the segregation was still at its peak.
The African American community took to the streets and they were in demonstration where they were demanding the right to vote as they quoted the constitution. Great strides were made in their quest and they even had the first black officer to commandeer the Buffalo Soldiers.
We will write a custom Research Paper on American History specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It was a great struggle for the African American society. Interestingly, they were making progress no matter how limited it was. They had resolved to keeping to themselves as they were not allowed to attend to white churches or stores.
Bibliography Davies Catherine, Brewster Claire and Owen Hilary. South American independence: gender, politics, text. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2006.
Eggleston, Edward. A first book in American history: with special reference to the lives and deeds of great Americans. California: American Book Company, 1899.
Olson, James Stuart and Beal, Heather Olson. The ethnic dimension in American history, fourth edition. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
Purvis, Thomas L. A dictionary of American history. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers Ltd, 1997.
Footnotes Stuart, Olson James and Beal, Heather Olson. The ethnic dimension in American history, fourth edition. (Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010), 113
Thomas, Purvis L. A dictionary of American history. (Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers Ltd, 1997), 54.
Edward, Eggleston. A first book in American history. (California: American Book Company, 1899), 18.
Edward, Eggleston. A first book in American history. (California: American Book Company, 1899), 28.
Catherine, Davies, Brewster Claire and Owen Hilary. South American independence: gender, politics, text. (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2006), 241.
Compare GUDEA with Amenemhat II Compare and Contrast Essay
Nursing Assignment Help Guedea like Amenemhat II the 10′ Pharaoh was carved in honor of a leader and king who ruled in the early 2144-2124 BC. By the inscriptions that were found on it, the sculpture forms part of a collection of the pieces in the temples built by the Guedea in Ur Nippur, Asdab Uruk and Bad-Tibira.
They were both carved as symbols of influence and prominence in the Sumer society. Both pieces of art were carefully crafted to reflect the feelings and impressions of the personalities they represented along with the nature and feel of their periods of reign.
Amenemhat II the 10′ Pharaoh compares to the Guedea by its rather lavish but carefully crafted sense of pride that falls in line with the pomp and style that came with the reign of the Pharaohs. It stands 10 foot tall almost the size of a monument with characteristically broad shoulders and a narrow waist that portrays a rather athletic and muscular personality.
Clearly, the reign of the pharaoh between 1919 and 1885 was full of energy and an active mood. The facial completion and the buildup of the facial features tend to make it look like the Ramesses II who rued between 1279 and 1213. The general composure of the piece cultivates a proud and authoritative picture and mood.
The Guedea on the other hand is a smaller and more condensed version of kingship. This reflects the early form of art due to its lack of refined and more clearly defined trimmings due to the tools and equipments that were used at the time. The piece of art is rather small and simplistic as to represent the amount of influence and importance that the personality gave to art.
Both motivated by a similar objective, the artworks were created by the people who obviously worshipped them. The sculptures, therefore, have a common theme that only differs in expression and lay out. The Pharaoh was created to thrill, which is reinforced by the wide open eyes and the outburst impression.
The Guedea on the other hand stands to honor the king and recognize the throne as well as represent a rather humble and more reserved king who needed little attention and was more focused on development. The piece was found among the pieces of trade and, therefore, follows the commercial rather than artistic importance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another important element that characterizes both sculptures and shows distinctly the difference between them is the position the characters are depicted in. The gestures of the characters seem to be one of the links that bring these artworks together. Both sitting in the same position, the Pharaoh and Guedea put their hands in their laps, as if humbly waiting for something or someone to come.
One of the most significant details in the sculptures of the ancient idols, the proportions of the artifacts in question are strikingly different. Speaking of the Pharaoh, one must mention the tremendous size the sculpture has.
Taking a single glance at the sculpture is enough to understand that the creator of the artwork was aiming at emphasizing the magnificence and the power of the beholder of the throne. Hence, the proportions of the sculpture are not distorted, but considerably exaggerated if compared to the size of a real person.
In contrast to the sculpture of the Pharaoh, the Guedea sculpture is tiny and almost insignificant. It is obvious that the creator of the sculpture was not intending to express the grandeur of his creation with help of its size. On the contrary, the sculpture of Guedea seems to command esteem with the air of composure and restraint about the figure.
The Egyptians considered these two characters as deities and could therefore not put a commercial price tag on their sculptures and symbols.
They, however, had an extremely high value in the religious realm and were therefore considered holy. The Sumerians, on the other hand, valued the symbols and sculptures of their rulers and their gods in the commercial and religious realm. This, therefore, explains the reason as to why the Guedea was found among other items of trade.
Bibliography Edzard, Dietz Otto. Gudea and His Dynasty. Buffalo, UK: Toronto: University of Toronto Press Incorporated, 1997.
We will write a custom Essay on Compare GUDEA with Amenemhat II specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Frayne, Douglas . Sargonic and Gutian Periods. Buffalo, UK: University of Toronto Press Incorporated, 1993.
Johnson, Ken. “A Pharaoh Lords Over a Museum.” New York Times. August 2011. www.nytimes.com/2011/08/23/arts/design/amenemhat-ii-at-metropolitan-museum-review.html?_r=1
Rice, Michael. Egypt’s Making: The Origins of Ancient Egypt 5000-2000 BC. New York, NY: Taylor
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